*Mercedes Melon is a former legal researcher with Al-Haq and holds an LLM in International Criminal Law (Honors) from the Irish Centre for Human Rights, Galway. This paper is based on Al-Haq’s upcoming report, authored by Melon, “The Silent Annexation of the Jordan Valley: Israel’s Illegal Appropriation of Palestinian Land.”
Forcible transfer and deportation are terms that commonly evoke images of people being loaded onto trucks or trains or violently driven away.1 Forcible transfer, however, may also take the form of involuntary or induced movement of people resulting from the creation of insecurity, disorder, or other adverse conditions, for the purpose of, or resulting in such migration. Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention prohibits all forcible transfers. Only the security of the population of the occupied territory or imperative military reasons can exceptionally justify total or partial evacuation of an area under occupation. Those evacuated shall be transferred back to their homes as soon as hostilities in the area in question have ceased.